“And God said, Let there be lights in the expanse of the heavens to separate the day from the night. And let them be for signs and for seasons, and for days and years… And there was evening and there was morning, the fourth day.” (Gen 1:14, 19)
According to evolution, the stars came into existence billions of years before the earth. But according to the Bible, the earth was created before the stars. Modern science has recently uncovered much evidence that the sun is, in fact, not billions of years old, but only thousands of years old.
Too Cold For Life to Form
Scientists estimate that the supply of hydrogen available to the sun should last for about ten billion years. Since they put the age of the sun at 4.6 billion years, it should have used about half its supply of hydrogen. If this were the case, the sun should have become twenty-five percent brighter as it converted to a nuclear reaction of hydrogen at its core, raising the temperature of the earth about 18ºC. The average temperature of the earth today is 15ºC, so back when life was beginning, it would have been below freezing and completely inhospitable for the formation of life. Water on the earth would have been frozen into great glacial masses that would have cooled the earth even further as sunlight was reflected from its surface. However, at the same time the earth was cooling, there is evidence Mars was warming. Obviously, both scenarios cannot be true.
Neutrino Levels and Oscillation
There are three ways to measure the age of the sun. One is to sample the neutrino flux — the emission of neutrinos from the sun. Neutrinos are extremely small particles that are cast off in the conversion of hydrogen to helium. The level of neutrino production should indicate how much helium the sun has created. For the past twenty-five years, Raymond Davis of the University of Pennsylvania has been recording neutrino levels deep in the Homesteak Mine of South Dakota where other particles are filtered out. The levels he has found are consistent with the short time frame for creation posited by the Creationists.1
Science holds that as stars age they gradually collapse and develop extremely dense cores, converting from helium production on the surface to a hydrogen-fueled nuclear reaction at the core. The formation of these dense cores causes stars to oscillate, or ‘twinkle.’ A team of Russian astronomers measured the oscillation of the sun in 1976. They found that the degree of oscillation along with the level of neutrino flux was consistent with a young, homogeneous star no more than 7500 years old.2
All but about one percent of the sun’s supply of lithium has been consumed. It would take a mere 7500 years for this much lithium to be used up at a temperature of three million degrees, the temperature at which it is destroyed. Beryllium, on the other hand, is destroyed at a temperature of four million degrees. It exists in abundance on the sun. So the sun’s temperature has to be between three and four million degrees, not the fifteen million degrees expected of a star that is 4.6 billion years old – more evidence that the age of the sun can be no more than 7500 years.3
When astronauts first landed on the moon, they expected to sink deep in cosmic dust that had accumulated over billions of years. What they found was the thin layer bearing their boot prints that you have seen in pictures. When NASA scientists analyzed the moon rocks that the astronauts brought back with them, they found that only one-and-a-half percent were coated with material from vaporized meteorites, material high in nickel content. The amount of “cosmic dust” from vaporized meteorites should have been far greater if the moon is in fact billions of years old.4
More Astronomical Data Confirming the Bible
In Joshua 10:13 God displayed His power over the sun and moon by bringing them to a complete stop for a whole day while Joshua finished defeating the Amorites. The historical accuracy of this event can be demonstrated with astronomical data. Reckoning forward from the first recorded solstice in the ancient Egyptian calendar to the date of this battle, it occurred on a Tuesday, but if one works backwards from the most recent solstice, it occurred on a Wednesday. These two days share the same date.5
According to Genesis 1:14-15, “God said, “Let there be lights in the expanse of the sky to separate the day from the night, and let them be signs to indicate seasons and days and years, and let them serve as lights in the expanse of the sky to give light on the earth.” If the real age of stars is indicated by how long it has taken their light to reach the earth, then the light of the first star would have appeared 4.5 years after its birth. It would have been the only star in the sky until light from the next nearest star appeared, making the night sky very dark, not light. The rest of the stars would have appeared one-by-one very slowly over billions of years. There would not have been enough stars to use the night sky for indicating seasons and days and years.
Psalm 104:2 says,
“O Lord my God, you are very great!
You are clothed with splendor and majesty,
covering yourself with light as with a garment,
stretching out the heavens like a tent. ”
This indicates God created all the stars at one time, not one at a time. He “stretched out the heavens like a tent.” No matter the amount of time it takes for the light from a star to reach the earth, that light appeared in the night sky the instant God said, “Let there be lights in the expanse of the sky.”
The word “create” implies that the universe was fully formed from the beginning, just like the fish that Jesus created to feed thousands of people. They were not evolved while the crowd sat on the ground millions of years waiting to be fed. They just appeared instantly. Creation by definition does not start from point zero, but at maturity. It is instantaneous. The Bible says, “God said, …let there be… and it was so.” All it took was a word to set the earth spinning, the stars shining, the plants and animals growing, and man and woman breathing. Stars already appeared to be light years away just like Adam appeared to be a fully grown young man and Eve a fully developed young woman. The book of Genesis clearly states that the sun, moon and stars were created on the fourth day of creation, after the earth, sky, seas and plants, not billions of years before. (Gen 1:3-19)
Evolutionary scientists try to explain origins in terms of the natural forces that sustain the universe. Natural forces unfold over time. The spoken word of God through which the world was created was instantaneous. If God spoke the heavens into existence they would go from nothing to everything in an instant. You don’t make something from nothing with natural forces. Only the word of God can do that. The laws that govern creation are not the same laws that sustain the universe. If they were, creation would still be taking place. But the Bible says God stopped creating, i.e. making something out of nothing, after six days:
“Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them. And on the seventh day God finished his work that he had done, and he rested on the seventh day from all his work that he had done. So God blessed the seventh day and made it holy, because on it God rested from all his work that he had done in creation” (Gen 2:1-3)
1. Bahcall, John N. Institute for Advanced Study, Olden Lane, Princeton, New Jersey; and Davis, Raymond Jr., Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. “The Evolution of Neutrino Astronomy.” http://www.sns.ias.edu/~jnb/Papers/Popular/Millennium/paper.pdf.
2. “Creationism vs. Evolution, Evidence From Our Solar System.” http://www.biblestudymanuals.net/k02.htm.
5. Riss, Richard M. “The Long Day of Joshua,” Christian Evidences,
http://www.grmi.org/Richard_Riss/evidences/7longday.html, November 30, 1